Natural Insecticides for use in LIVESTOCK:
They are two natural insecticides based on Neem oil imported from India.
Neem oil is a product obtained from the seeds of the neem tree. It is very effective for the control more than 300 species of insects and phytopathogenic mites.
They are not toxic to the warm-blooded animal, and are biodegradable.
Due to its active ingredients, applying it on the skin of cattle, i’t will action insects inhibiting appetite, growth and fertility, while blocking the development of their eggs.
Uses of NEEM in livestock and birds
At present, the control of various pests and diseases of cattle with neem products is practiced.
Seed oil is used to repel flies that oviposit in wounds. There is also evidence that it controls the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, which causes inflammation of the mammary glands, and the bacterium Salmonella sp, the causative agent of abortion in horses, cows and sheep (NRC, 1992).
FOOD FOR BIRDS: neem oil can be used in poultry feeds. The fatty acids that are part of the source of the oil indicate that it is an important source of long chains of fatty acids, contains azadirachtins, meliantriol and salannin. Neem oil can be used as a supplement in poultry feed.
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF NEEM AND ITS EFFECT ON INSECTS.
Neem has biologically active constituents such as triterpenoids, (more specifically called limonoids), and the most important are azadirachtin, salanin, meliantrol, nimbin and nimbidin; recognizing the following effects: they interrupt or inhibit the development of eggs, larvae and pupae; block the change of larvae to nymphs; repels larvae and adults; it repels the females to oviposit; sterilizes adults; discourages insects from feeding; confuses the insects to perform the metamorphosis and inhibits the formation of chitin (NRC, 1992, saxena et al, 1983):
It can be stated that in the general terms of neem extracts affect about 300 species of insects in the orders of: orthoptera (grasshoppers): blattaria (cockroaches); homoptera (aphids), lepidoptera (butterflies); diptera (flies); coleoptera (beetles and weevils), hymenoptera (wasps and ants); isoptera (termites), thyzanoptera (trips) and siphonaptera (flea) (NRC, 1992, stoney, 1998). The neem extracts are effective to protect the plants from defoliators, without affecting the bees which are beneficial for pollination.
Neem does not create any resistance in insects, since the mixture of active ingredients prevents them from acquiring immunity; while synthetic chemicals, which frequently contain an active ingredient, do become tolerated by insects (NRC, 1992; Norten, 1999). In addition, neem extracts are not toxic to benefical insects, such as certain wasps, butterflies and bees, due to their eating habits or differences in their metabolism.
Wounds and inflammations. Neem oil is applied directly on wounds and inflammations to help heal and reduce inflammation.
Skin. Neem oil is used to fight parasites, skin conditions and all types of erysipelas. It contains a combination of organic sulfur among other ingredients.
By combating ticks and flies on cattle, it keeps the cattle free of ticks and flies for a period of 7 to 15 days, depending on the environmental conditions.